For years now Linus Torvalds follows the development of Linux kernel along with many developers around the world, thanks to a VCS, or a version control system called Git, which allows the developer to modify the source code of a program and send the changes by committing them, or giving reasons for the changes made to the code , improvements (etc etc ...) it is possible to access the Linux Git repository from here o here . (Git is the most used VCS in the world for open source projects: see CyanogenMod, AOSP, Google Engine, Facebook, and more…).
Linus, in fact, asked his fans on Google+ if they preferred to continue with the numbering 3.x (3.20) or 4.x, most voted for 4.0, and as promised here Linus himself announces the development of Linux 4.0
Why is so much importance given to software as a "kernel"?
A kernel, to put it simply is a software that manages the hardware and software resources of a machine, it is the heart of the operating system, therefore it constitutes one of the fundamental components of an operating system, without which an OS would not be able to correctly manage the resources. Linux is probably the most famous kernel.
Is Linux an operating system?
NO AND NO! Linux is the component of an open source Operating System that is GNU!
GNU is a set of software that includes the Linux kernel, it is therefore wrong to define "Debian / Arch / Fedora operating systems based on the Linux operating system", it is instead correct to say that they are based on the GNU / Linux operating system or that they are kernel based Linux
Linux is therefore coming to the 4.0 version, which is currently under development (4.0-rc1: 22 / 02 / 2015)
The latest version of 3.x is 3.19.x
Mailing List: LKML - 4.0-rc1 out! (Signed by Linus)
Source code: Linux 4.0-rc1 (tarball)
Linux Kernel Archive: The Linux Kernel Archives
How do you install a kernel from source code?
you can use the make utility (present in all UNIX-like operating systems, including GNU) to build software from source code, we do not recommend it to those who do not "understand". However, the commands to compile an image are:
$ make mrproper #you prepare the environment $ make gconfig # run a program that lets you build a .config file [GUI - GTK] (Save the .config by clicking on "Save" in the utils bar. [Attention to the first entry, deselect if the desired / required / supported architecture is NOT 64 bit] $ make -jX # start the compilation - argument j: indicates the cores that will be used in the compilation (3 advice = two cores, time spent with two cores: 15 minutes , time spent with 1 core: 2 hours) $ cd arch / (architecture) / boot # make modules_install #install kernel modules 4.0.0-rc1 (/ lib / modules, o, / usr / lib / modules) # cp bzImage / boot / vmlinuz-4.0.0-rc1 # copy the kernel to / boot (the kernels folder, bootloader and ramdisk)
then it is necessary to use a builder for the initramfs (ie the ramdisk, which is executed by the bootloader before loading the kernel), there are different tools for each distro (for Arch Linux, for example, it exists
), search the web! Then the resulting image (* .img extension) will need to be copied to / boot (#)
finally, after copying the ramdisk to / boot, it is necessary to update the bootloader (it is possible to update the GRUB bootloader with the following command)
# grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg
if dual-boot [Not necessary if not dual-boot and / or the bootloader is GRUB]
# grub-install / dev / sdX # where X is the final letter of your HDD / SSD where GRUB will be installed
then, re-update the grub.cfg file as described above.
When will Linux 4.0 be released?
This is not possible to know,
probably from 3 to 6 weeks we talk about June-July 2015
I'm not a developer or I'm not an expert ... update times for the various distributions?
Starting from the fact that every GNU / Linux distro has its own non-vanilla / stock kernel, but a modified kernel for the various distributions the waiting times (in my opinion) will be:
- Arch Linux/ derivatives: within a few weeks (or even days)
- Red Hat/ derivatives: within two - maximum three weeks
- Ubuntu/ derivatives: within two to four weeks
- Debian/ derivatives: I don't know. Debian = stability (just see that Debian 7.8 runs 3.16 / 3.14 / 3.13 (I can't remember since I switched to Arch)
As you can see I have separated Ubuntu from Debian, not because Ubuntu is not based on Debian, but because Ubuntu follows a release we say faster than kernels compared to Debian.
* Latest version for Android OS: 3.4.x (I hope Google decides to upgrade to this major kernel release ...) *